The history of snapdragon, or antirrinum, goes back to the distant past: its origin is poetically described in ancient Greek myths.
The decorative qualities of the snapdragon are beyond praise. It is presented in varieties of different heights and all kinds of colors: you can grow antirrinum as a curb, as a solo plant, as well as in mixed plantings, combining with other horticultural crops.
In our article we will tell you about:
- what varieties and varieties of snapdragon are represented in the culture;
- how to grow antirrinum in the garden;
- how to care for him;
- how and when to collect snapdragon seeds.
Planting and caring for snapdragons
- Landing: in warm climates, sowing seeds in the ground in April or before winter. Seeds are sown for seedlings in mid-March, seedlings are planted in open ground closer to mid-May or early April.
- Bloom: from mid-summer to late autumn.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: well fertilized, breathable, light loamy soils with a pH of 6.0-7.0, cultivated to a depth of 30-40 cm.
- Watering: only in dry mornings, abundant.
- Top dressing: 2-3 times before flowering with full mineral fertilizer.
- Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
- Pests: aphids, root nematodes, spider mites, scoops, thrips, slugs.
- Diseases: late blight, fusarium, verticillosis, black leg, septoria, sclerotinosis and peronosporosis.
Read more about growing snapdragons below.
Flowers snapdragon (lat.Antirrhinum), or antirrinum, - a genus of herbaceous plants of the Plantain family, covering about 50 species of perennials, including climbing ones, common in the warm zones of the Earth, but mostly in North America. The Russians call this plant "dogs", the British call it "snapdragon" (biting dragon), the French call it "wolf's mouth", and the Ukrainians call it "mouths." From the Greek language, the name "antirrinum" is translated as "nasal", "like a nose."
The ancient Greek myth tells about the first feat of Hercules, when he defeated the Nemean lion, famous for its ferocity and invulnerability. The goddess Flora presented Hercules with a beautiful flower created by her in honor of his victory, which she called "snapdragon." Since then, it has become a tradition in Greece to give snapdragons to heroes. In culture, the snapdragon flower has existed for about five hundred years, and breeding work was begun by German scientists in the 19th century, and today about 1000 varieties of snapdragons are grown in the gardens of the planet, and most interesting of all, that the basis for this variety of forms and hybrids was a single species - large antirrhinum (Antirrhinum majus).
The snapdragon plant is a semi-shrub or herbaceous plant with straight, branched, green, finely grooved stems from 15 cm to one meter in height, forming pyramidal bushes. The upper leaves of the snapdragon are alternate, the lower ones are opposite, they are oblong-oval or lanceolate in shape, color from light green to dark green with red veins.
The flowers are fragrant, rather large, irregular, two-lipped, depending on the variety, simple or double, collected in spike-shaped inflorescences, they are painted in white, yellow, pink, pale fawn, all shades of red, but there are also two-color and even tricolor varieties. The fruit is a two-celled polyspermous capsule, in one gram from 5000 to 8000 seeds. Snapdragon bloom usually begins in June and ends with frost.
Most often, a perennial snapdragon in horticulture is grown as an annual plant, but with good care and favorable conditions, a cold-resistant snapdragon can successfully overwinter in the garden and bloom the next year more beautifully than before. In garden design, antirrinum is grown as a curb plant, although snapdragons look great both in a flower bed and planted in groups against a green lawn. Snapdragons are often used to decorate balconies and terraces.
Of particular interest among flower growers today are ampelous forms of snapdragons, which can be grown in suspended structures to decorate terraces and galleries.
In the photo: Snapdragon blooming in the garden
Growing snapdragon from seed
Snapdragon reproduces in generative and vegetative ways. Snapdragon seeds retain the ability to germinate for several years. If you live in a warm climate, you can grow snapdragons from seeds, sowing them directly into the ground, and they will sprout in two and a half or three weeks, without any problems surviving even a slight night cold snap, which is common in spring, but in areas where it is warm comes gradually, it is better to use the seedling method of growing snapdragons. How to grow snapdragons from seeds using seedlings? This process is neither complex nor labor-intensive.
So, sowing snapdragon: early March pour coarse sand into bowls with a diameter of at least 10 cm with drainage holes, and on top of the sand - compost soil mixed with sand, compact it, level it, sprinkle it with water from a sprayer and distribute seeds mixed with sand on its surface, which we then cover from above with a thin layer of the same substrate, moisten it from a finely dispersed spray bottle and cover the sowing dish with glass.
We remove condensate from the glass every day, let the crops breathe and, as necessary, moisten the soil from the sprayer. At a temperature of 23 ºC and moderate humidity of the substrate, sprouts will appear in a couple of weeks. As soon as this happens, move the bowl to a bright, non-sunny place so that they do not stretch out, and as soon as the emergence of seedlings becomes massive (after 3-4 days), remove the glass.
In the photo: Growing snapdragon from seeds
The seedlings will grow slowly at first, and your task during this period is to monitor the correct moisture of the soil, watering the soil in the morning so that there is plenty of moisture, but not in excess, as this can lead to a black leg disease of the seedlings. "Fallen" sprouts should be removed with tweezers, and the place where they grew should be powdered with crushed coal or sprinkled with a small amount of calcined and cooled river sand. After the appearance of a pair of real - not cotyledonous - leaves, the seedlings dive into a container or box, positioning them so that they grow freely.
You can plant seedlings in personal pots, or, for example, dive three sprouts into larger pots.
Place the cut seedlings in a bright place, protecting them from direct sunlight, and gradually begin to accustom them to the environment and temperature in which they will find themselves after transplanting into open ground: open the window for a while during the day, but make sure that the seedlings are not in a draft... After the development of 4-5 leaves, the central shoot of each seedling must be pinched to enhance tillering, but if the lateral shoots are also growing too actively, pinch them too.
In the photo: Red snapdragon
When to plant
In late May - early June, grown, matured and hardened seedlings are planted in open ground. And do not be afraid of the last night cold snaps: your young "lion cubs" will calmly survive them. A snapdragon growing area can be sunny or slightly shaded, but always well-drained and protected from strong winds. The soil, however, requires light and nutritious. The best primer for snapdragons - a mixture of sand, compost and peat in approximately equal proportions. The optimum pH of soil for snapdragon is pH 6-8.
In the photo: Snapdragon in a flower bed
How to plant
Planting snapdragon flowers is carried out according to the following scheme: tall varieties are planted at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other, medium-sized ones - at a distance of 30 cm, undersized ones - after 20 cm, dwarf ones - after 15 cm.As soon as the snapdragon takes root, it starts very grow quickly and develop into a lush flowering bush. You should know that snapdragon planting is carried out in well-moistened soil.
This plant is unpretentious and needs only what any garden flower needs: watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds and feeding. You will have to water the plants only in dry times, when there is no rain, but not at night. The next day after watering or on the same day in the evening, it is advisable to loosen the soil and weed out the weeds. It is advisable to tie tall varieties of snapdragon to a support. It is better to pick off wilted flowers so that the plant does not expend energy on them.
If you want to get a long flowering from the snapdragon, do not let it set seeds, remove the flower arrow as soon as the last flowers have wilted. You need to cut the peduncle under the lowest flower, then new arrows and new flowers will appear.
As soon as the plant after planting takes root in the soil, it must be fed with nitrophos and organic matter, the second feeding is carried out when the snapdragon begins to form buds, and in this case, a urea solution, potassium sulfate and superphosphate are used at the rate of one tablespoon of each ingredient per 10 liters water.
In the photo: Pink flowers of antirrinum
Pests and diseases
Sometimes red spots of rust appear on the plant, septoria, snapdragon, black leg, gray or root rot can affect the plant. Sick specimens must be immediately removed and burned, and the soil in the place where they grew must be treated with an antifungal agent (fungicide).
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Of the insect pests, scabbards, fly larvae, caterpillars and butterflies that lay eggs are dangerous. It is always easier to take preventive measures than to treat an already existing disease or expel insects that have settled in flowers, so follow the recommendations for plant care, remove diseased or pest-affected specimens in time, do not allow plants to grow too close to each other, observe moderation in moisturizing the area, watering the flowers at the root, and not over the leaves, and the snapdragon will not be afraid of diseases or insects.
In the photo: Cultivation of snapdragon
Snapdragon can bloom until the fall frost, but when a stable fall comes, cut the snapdragon, if you are growing it as a perennial plant, so short that the remainder of the stem is 5-8 cm high above the ground, and cover the area with peat with sawdust or dry foliage - mulch will help plants survive the winter. If you are growing an annual snapdragon, then in order to avoid self-seeding during the entire flowering period, cut off the wilted flowers in a timely manner, and when all the flowers on the arrow have faded, cut the peduncle as low as possible. This must be done in order to prevent the seeds from ripening and waking up to the ground. When autumn comes, dig up the area and burn the remains of the plants to destroy the pests that have settled in them.
In the photo: Snapdragon flower
How and when to collect seeds
The seeds of most garden plants are harvested when they are fully ripe. But snapdragon seeds need to be harvested in the phase of incomplete maturity, so that they can then ripen in a dry room with good ventilation. The collection is carried out in a long paper bag, as for a baguette. They begin to collect seeds when the fruits on the lower part of the peduncle ripen: the upper part of the peduncle, on which the fruits are still green, is cut and discarded, and a paper bag is put on the rest of the flower arrow, tied with a thread below the fruits and cut off the shoot below the dressing. The inverted bag is suspended in a warm, dry room and waited for the ripe seeds to pour out of the capsules into the bag. Then they are placed in cardboard boxes and stored at a temperature of + 3-5 ºC, protected from possible moisture ingress.
In the photo: Antirrinum flower
Types and varieties of snapdragons
Today in professional floriculture there are several classifications of snapdragons, and the most common of them is by plant height. On this basis, varieties are divided into five groups:
Height from 90 to 130 cm. The central shoot in plants of this group is much higher than the shoots of the second order, there are no shoots of the third order. Sorts: Arthur - cherry color, 90-95 cm high, F1 red XL and F1 pink XL 110 cm high, respectively, in red and pink shades.
From 60 to 90 cm, grown for cut or as a vertical accent in mixborders or groups. Lateral shoots are much lower than the central one. Snapdragon tall in cut lasts up to a week or longer, the most fragrant varieties are yellow shades. Popular varieties: Anna German - a soft pink snapdragon, Canary - a bright yellow variety, a mixture of Madame Butterfly varieties - a terry snapdragon of different shades, and others.
In the photo: Yellow snapdragon
Tall or medium-sized
Representatives of the variety reach 40-60 cm in height, universal varieties grown both as flower bed decoration and for cutting. They are distinguished by strong branching. A characteristic feature of the varieties of this group is also that the central shoot is slightly higher than the lateral shoots. Varieties: Golden Monarch - yellow, Ruby - bright pink, Lipstick Silver - pinkish-white.
25 to 40 cm tall, grown as bedding or border flowers. These varieties have many flowering shoots of the second and third order, while the main shoot is at one level or slightly below the shoots of the first order. Varieties: Hobbit, Tip-top, Lampion ampelous hybrid.
In the photo: White snapdragon
15-20 cm in height, flowers for borders, carpet flower beds, rock gardens and rabatok. They are also grown as potted plants. These varieties are distinguished by strong branching up to shoots of the third and fourth order, the main shoot is usually lower or at the level of the shoots of the second order. Cultivars: Sakura Blossom is a pinkish-white cultivar with a spot, Candy Showers is an ampelous snapdragon.
In addition to this classification, there is an equally popular classification of Sanderson and Martin for cut varieties of the year-round cycle, but it is interesting only for those for whom growing snapdragons is not a pleasure or an aesthetic need, but a means of enrichment.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Plantain
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
- Information about the Shrub
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Shrubs Plants on L Plantains
Planting antirrinum (snapdragon) in 2021 according to the lunar calendar: auspicious days
Snapdragon, or antirrinum, is an annual plant with inflorescences of a wide variety of colors. Decorativeness and unpretentiousness allowed him to earn the love of many flower growers. Not growing snapdragon yet? It's time to change that!
Few of the summer residents and gardeners will agree to dispute the following fact - this flower is unusually beautiful, they can decorate any site and flower bed. But in order to enjoy the luxurious flowering, you need to plant seedlings in advance (in January, February or March) at home.With knowledge of certain technologies and tricks, even a novice summer resident can cope with the cultivation of antirrinum from seeds. And in our article we will tell you what auspicious days according to the lunar calendar in 2021 it is better to sow this beautiful plant.
What does a snapdragon flower look like?
Snapdragon or antirrinum is a plant that grows in height from 15 centimeters to a meter. Grow it as an annual or perennial. Shoots are straight and branched. They form dense pyramidal or cone-shaped bushes that look very graceful. The stems are painted green. Sometimes a purple bloom is present.
The shape of the leaf plate is lanceolate, oval. Foliage is more of an original background for beautiful buds than a decoration. Inflorescences captivate even experienced gardeners with their attractiveness. The flowers are very similar in shape to the face of a lion: double-lipped, rarely double. They cover the bush densely. If you press on them from the side, the bud opens like a lion's mouth. This is especially noticeable in large species. But the dwarf snapdragon looks less impressive, but also very attractive. During flowering, the culture looks festive, magnificent and elegant.
Allows the cultivation of snapdragons from seeds, especially the use of different varieties, to create interesting compositions. After all, the color palette is quite wide. There are yellow, orange, red, white and crimson specimens. Saturation is different. There are bright and catchy options, and there are gentle ones. Each bud opens for 12 days. The flowering period lasts about 3 months, usually covering the whole summer. It is also worth noting that antirrinum is a very aromatic plant, it exudes a pleasant, sweet honey smell. We also advise you to see the article: Growing tulips at home with bulbs and seeds.
The question of when to plant snapdragons on seedlings is one of the most pressing, since information about this varies greatly from source to source. This question cannot be answered unambiguously. And all because among the variety of modern varieties and hybrids of snapdragons, there are several groups that differ greatly in terms of flowering time.
Common, most common snapdragon varieties bloom from about July, but bred hybrids and some short-day varieties can bloom in early spring and even in winter, if they are provided with favorable conditions for this. Therefore, always carefully study all the information on the timing of sowing on seed bags.
It is also necessary to take into account the fact that tall varieties of snapdragons need on average more time to flower. While many undersized varieties of antirrinum can be sown even in April and at the end of June admire their flowering.
In the southern regions of Russia, with early and warm spring, snapdragons are often sown in April-May directly into open ground. After all, these flowers are very cold-resistant and can even withstand significant drops in temperature. They don't need a lot of warmth, but light means a lot to them.
Even in the middle lane, you can try to leave the snapdragon for the winter in the garden, because by their nature these plants are perennials. If there is a lot of snow, then in the spring you can find numerous shoots that are easy to thin out and plant in future flower beds.
How to collect seeds
Plant breeding is usually carried out using seedlings. Snapdragon seeds can be purchased at specialized stores or harvested by yourself if you have already grown flowers.
It is recommended to collect seed pods before their final ripeness. The upper part of the plant with capsules is cut off, placed in a paper or cloth bag and hung in a dry place. The use of plastic packaging is undesirable, as the seeds in it can rot. When the fruits are ripe, the grains will fall out of them.
Before you start growing your snapdragon from seeds at home, you are advised to store them in the refrigerator in a paper box. This stratification has a beneficial effect on plant germination rates. Under suitable storage conditions, seeds can retain their germination capacity for 3-4 years.
Snapdragon picking and planting in open ground
For a snapdragon plant, picking plays a big role, because seedlings are often located too close to each other, and it is recommended to plant seedlings in separate pots when two true leaves appear.
Damage to the roots of the flower is highly undesirable, so the plants are taken out with a lump of earth. After the dive and the appearance of the third or fourth pair of true leaves, pinch the growth point at the snapdragon so that the plant branches better and forms more peduncles in the future. Caring for snapdragon seedlings at this stage consists of several points:
- watering - 2-3 times a week with settled water
- feeding - a weak solution of chicken manure or herbal infusion, a teaspoon under the plant once a week
- strengtheningZircon, Epin and other biostimulants - spraying is carried out every 2 weeks according to the instructions.
snapdragon in the flower garden - pictured
Shortly before being transplanted into the garden, the snapdragon must be hardened. Seedlings are taken out into the air in the warmest hours, on cold days the seedlings are taken out on closed balconies or on the veranda, and closer to the final relocation to the flower bed, the seedlings can be left outside with an overnight stay.
While the young snapdragon is gaining strength, planting and care in the open field should be finally planned out. Before the onset of constant heat, a bright and dry place is selected for the culture. The soil is dug to a depth of 35 cm, sifted humus and leafy earth are introduced into it in a bucket per square meter. If the soil is heavy, add ½ bucket of coarse sand for each square meter.
Snapdragon planting in open ground is carried out in warm weather, but without the scorching sun, the seedlings are placed at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other and do it carefully so as not to damage the root system of flowers. Plantings are watered with warm water, and the soil surface is mulched with sawdust or peat.
Planting seedlings in open ground
The planting of the snapdragon to a permanent place can be carried out when stable warm weather is established without the threat of frost. Planting of plants depends on their variety:
- the distance between the seedlings of the dwarf group should be 15-20 cm
- low and medium-sized varieties should be planted at a distance of 50 cm from each other
- tall plants require a 70 cm gap.
Further care for the snapdragon includes regular watering, weeding, mineral fertilization, and bush formation. So that the plant does not lose its decorative effect, and the flowers are bright and large, the lateral shoots should be pinched in time.
Snapdragon is an unpretentious plant, so both an experienced and a novice florist will be able to grow it. Knowing what conditions and care the flower prefers, you can get strong and beautiful plants that will delight with lush flowering from warm May to cold October.